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Presenting Your Research: Citing Sources

What Is a Citation?

A citation contains important pieces of information about a primary or secondary source. These pieces of information, called elements, include items such as the name of the author, the title of an article, the title of a book or magazine, the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. The citation identifies the source and enables a reader to locate it.

Other elements can also be included. For example, a citation from Issues & Controversies also includes the name of the database, the name of the database publisher (the company that issues the database), and the date on which you accessed the article.

What Is a Bibliography?

Your bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources of information you used in researching and writing your paper. Each entry on the list of sources you consulted is a citation. Depending on which citation style you use, your bibliography may be titled by a different name such as:

  1. Works Cited (a list of sources you cited in your article)
  2. Annotated Bibliography (a bibliography that also contains a brief description and evaluation of each source)
  3. Works Consulted (a list of all sources you used when writing your paper)
  4. Selected Bibliography (a list of only your most important or heavily used sources)
  5. List of References (a list of sources you cited in text)
Why Do I Need to Cite?

Citations are needed:

  1. To acknowledge the source of information for any ideas, quotations, or images that you used. Claiming that another person's ideas are your own or failing to acknowledge sources that you used is called plagiarism. For more information see Avoiding Plagiarism.
  2. To provide enough information about the source you used to help a reader easily find it.
  3. To show that you have gathered and used information about your topic and have conducted research.
  4. To protect your own original ideas and words. When you cite others' work, you make clear which ideas are yours and which came originally from other sources.
When Should I Cite?

In general, you should include citations when you:

  • Quote. If you are quoting more than two consecutive words directly from a source, place the words or phrase in quotation marks and include a citation. For example, the following quote is taken from an article in Issues & Controversies:
  • "Supporters of pharmacists' right of refusal say that the issue is a matter of religious discrimination. Anyone living and working in the U.S. is guaranteed religious freedom by the Constitution, they argue, and people should not be made to compromise that religious freedom in the workplace. Distributing a drug that goes against the moral values inherent in their religion violates that constitutionally protected right, advocates maintain ("Pharmacists and 'Right of Conscience' Laws")."
  • The information in parentheses at the end of the quote is a parenthetical reference and points the reader to the complete corresponding entry in your bibliography. (For more information see How Do I Cite in a Bibliography?)
  • Paraphrase. If you use an idea or fact from another source and put it into your own words, you should include a citation. For example, you should include a citation if you paraphrased the quotation above as follows:
  • Advocates for pharmacists' right to refuse to fill prescriptions for morning-after pills say they are upholding the pharmacists' constitutionally protected right to religious freedom ("Pharmacists and 'Right of Conscience' Laws").
  • Use little-known information. You do not need to cite sources for facts that are considered "common knowledge" or widely taken for granted. For example, you do not need to cite a source for the fact that the Empire State Building is in New York City. However, if you use information that you think is unfamiliar, you should cite the source. For example, you should cite a source if you mention the fact that the Empire State Building was built on the site of the first Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.
  • If you are not sure whether a certain fact is common knowledge, assume that it is unfamiliar and cite the source.
  • Use non-text sources. If you include photographs, maps, graphs, tables, audio recordings, film, material from Web sites, or other formats, be sure to include a citation.
How Do I Cite in a Bibliography?

Before you write your paper, ask whether any particular citation style is preferred. There are several commonly accepted styles for citing sources, and writers in different subject areas (such as science or literature) tend to use one style or another more often. These various styles differ very little. Most include the same elements but organize them differently. Whichever style you use, it is important to be consistent.


Three of the most popular styles used are:

  • Modern Language Association (MLA). Your English or history teacher may ask you to use this style.
  • Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). Some of the sources you consult may use this citation style.
  • American Psychological Association (APA). Your social science teacher may ask you to use this style.

The Issues & Controversies database automatically provides MLA-style citation and CMS-style elements for most of its content. Additional instructions are provided in How to Cite. To view the MLA-style citation, select the MLA button in the citation area at the bottom of the article page. To view the CMS-style citation, select the CMS button.

The automatic citations appear in two places:

  1. At the bottom of the article page.
  2. In the print-ready version of the article.

No matter which style you choose, you need to include the key citation elements such as the author's name (if any is given), the title of the article, and the publication date. When you cite information retrieved from an electronic database (such as  Issues & Controversies) or from a Web site, some elements may not be available and certain elements, such as page numbers, are usually not needed. Include as much information in your citation as you can find, and omit anything that is missing.

Citing in MLA Style

In MLA style, your bibliography is called a "Works Cited" list. The Works Cited list should go at the end of your paper. It is arranged alphabetically by the author's (or principal author's) last name. If the work lists no author, alphabetize according to the first significant word in the title (see Note 1 below).

The first line of each entry in the Works Cited list begins at the left margin of the page; any additional lines are indented from the left margin.

The instructions that follow are guidelines from Infobase Learning for citing material from the Issues & Controversies database and other electronic sources in MLA style.

Citing Sources from Issues & Controversies

"Title of Article." Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Month (abbr. except May, June, and July) Year of publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of access. <Record URL>.

Example:

"Legacy of the Arab Spring." Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, 16 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 July 2014. <http://icof.infobaselearning.com//articles/global-issues-and-world-politics/legacy-of-the-arab-spring.aspx>.

Notes:

  1. Where no author is shown, begin the citation with the article title and alphabetize it by title in the Works Cited list. If the article title begins with A, An, or The, use the next word in the title when you are alphabetizing your Works Cited list.
  2. Abbreviate the name of all months except May, June, and July when listing the date of publication and date of access. Abbreviations are Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec.
  3. The MLA advises supplying the full URL for a Web publication if your readers are unlikely to be able to locate the source without it. Some instructors require this information as part of a citation, so the automatic citations supplied in Issues & Controversies include it; however, it is not a requirement of the MLA for every citation. URLs that take more than one line should be broken after single or double slashes, without introducing a hyphen between lines.
  4. Issues & Controversies articles display their specific URLs as a Issues & Controversies. The Record URL is at the bottom of each article screen. To use a record URL, copy it into your citation, following the punctuation instructions above.

For other types of content in the Issues & Controversies database, additional citation information may be needed. For example, credited authors' names are required; a photograph citation needs to identify the photographer name and/or the agency that owns the photograph; and the citation for a speech reprinted in the database needs to identify the speaker and the date of the speech. (All image credits appear with the images in Issues & Controversies.)

Reuters®

For a news article from Reuters®, each citation should include as much of the following information that is available in this format:

Last Name of Author One, First Name of Author One, & First Name of Author Two, Last Name of Author Two [if any]. "The Title of the Article." Reuters. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of access. <Record URL>.

Example:

Martina, Michael. "China will not fill U.S. void in Afghanistan: official." Reuters. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, 21 July 2014. Web. 23 July 2014. <http://icof.infobaselearning.com/recordurl.aspx?wid=10835&nid=167292&umbtype=1>.

Images: Photographs, Maps, and Charts

Photographs: For photographs, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Photographer, First Name of Photographer. Title of Photograph OR Description of Photograph. Copyright Holder. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of electronic publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Maps and Charts: Each citation should include as much of the following information that is available, in this format:

Last Name of Cartographer or Artist, First Name of Cartographer or Artist. Title of Map or Chart OR Description of Map or Chart. Copyright Holder if not Infobase Learning. [If it is Infobase Learning, do not include the Copyright Holder name.]Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of electronic publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Editorial Cartoons

For editorial cartoons, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Cartoonist, First Name of Cartoonist. "Title of the Cartoon." Copyright Holder. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, n.d. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Historical Documents

Many documents in Historical Documents are primary documents. Many primary documents fall into one of these categories:

Letters

For a letter reprinted in Issues & Controversies, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Letter's Author, First Name of Letter's Author. "Title of the Letter" or Description of the Letter. Day Mo. Year of Letter. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of Publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Press Releases and Statements

For a press release or statement reprinted in Issues & Controversies, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Author, First Name of Author. "Title of Press Release or Statement." Press release OR Statement. Day Mo. Year of Release. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of Publication. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Speeches, Lectures, Addresses, or Readings

For a speech, lecture, address, or reading, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Speaker, First Name of Speaker. "Title of the Speech" OR Description of the Speech such as Address, Lecture, Speech, or Reading. Location. Day Mo. Year of the Speech. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of the Speech. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Interviews

For interviews conducted on television or radio, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Person Interviewed, First Name of Person Interviewed. Interview with First Name of Interviewer Last Name of Interviewer. Title of Program. Name of network. Call letters and city of local station (if any), Day Mo. Year of broadcast. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning Day Mo. Year of publication.  Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Note:

  • If the document you are citing is an excerpt or excerpts of the original primary document, add "Excerpted in" before Issues & Controversies.
Government Publications
Presidential Proclamations

For a presidential proclamation, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of President, First Name of President. Title of Proclamation. Day Mo. Year of Proclamation. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

United Nations Resolutions

For a United Nations resolution, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

United Nations. Title of Bill or Resolution. Year of Publication. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Legal Documents

The MLA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for detailed information on citing legal documents.

Encyclopedia

Citations for Encyclopedia articles should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Author One, First Name of Author One, and First Name of Author Two Last Name of Author Two [if any]. "Title of the Article." Encyclopedia. Issues & Controversies. Infobase Learning, Day Mo. Year of Electronic Publication [if any]. Web. Day Mo. Year of Access. <Record URL>.

Notes:

  1. Author information is available for Encyclopedia articles that have clickable initials at the end of the main body of text. Click on the initials for the name and affiliation of the author or authors.
  2. Other Encyclopedia articles do not require any author information to be included in the citation.
Citing in Text

If your instructor asks you to cite in MLA style, you should cite sources in the text of your paper as well as providing a Works Cited list. You should include a parenthetical reference in the text of your paper whenever you quote from a source, paraphrase material, or use another author's idea. A parenthetical reference points the reader to the complete corresponding entry in your Works Cited list.

When you use a parenthetical reference, include the author's last name and the page number, if any, in parentheses.

Try to keep parenthetical references as short as possible, and place them where a pause would naturally occur, such as at the end of a sentence. Generally, you will not need to include page numbers for electronic sources. If you give enough information in your sentence, you may not have to include a parenthetical reference.

If you are citing more than one author with the same last name, include the first initial of the author to avoid confusion.

If you wish to cite more than one work by the same author, include the title (in full or a shortened version) after the author's last name.

If no author is listed,the MLA recommends that you include the title (in full or a shortened version) in the text rather than in a parenthetical reference if possible. If you cannot include the title in text, include the full or a shortened version of the title in parentheses.

For more information on preparing citations according to MLA style see www.mla.org/style or borrow the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) from your library.

Citing in APA Style

In APA style, your bibliography is called "References." The list of references is arranged alphabetically by the (first) author's last name. It should be included at the end of your paper. The instructions below are for citing material from Issues & Controversies and other electronic sources in APA style.

Citing Sources from Issues & Controversies

For an article from Issues & Controversies, each citation should include:

Title of the article. (Publication year, Month Day). Issues & Controversies. Retrieved from Domain URL

Notes

  1. If no publication date is given, use "(n.d.)."
  2. If no author is listed, list the article title first and then the publication date.
  3. All words in an article title except the first word, words after a colon or dash, and proper nouns should begin with a lower-case letter.
  4. If an article is only available electronically, the title should be in italics.

Example:

Native American policy. (2014, March 31). Issues & Controversies. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Reuters®

For a news article from Reuters®, each citation should include as much of the following information that is available in this format:

Last Name of Author One, Initials of Author One, & Last Name of Author Two, Initials of Author Two [if any]. (Year, Month Day of the issue date). The title of the article. Reuters. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Martina, M. (2014, July 21). China will not fill U.S. void in Afghanistan: official. Reuters. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Images: Photographs, Maps, and Charts

For photographs, each citation should include as much as is available of the following information, in this format:

Last Name of Photographer, Initials of Photographer. (Year, Month Day of the issue date. If no date is listed, use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Phillip, D.J. (2005). Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

For maps, each citation should include:

Title of map [Map]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Afghanistan [Map]. (2000). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

For charts, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Artist, Initials of Artist. (Year, Month Day of publication. If no date is listed use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of chart or news map [Chart or News map]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Williams, D. (n.d.). New food pyramid [Chart]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Editorial Cartoons

For editorial cartoons, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Artist, Initials of Artist. (Year, Month Day of publication. If no date is listed use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of cartoon [Cartoon]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Examples:

McCoy, G. (n.d.). Warrantless wiretapping: Perspectives [Cartoon]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

A nation at war [Cartoon]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Historical Documents
Letters

For a letter, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Letter's Author, Initials of Letter's Author. (Year, Month Day of Letter. If no publication date is listed use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of letter [Letter]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Prueher, J. (2001, April 11). U.S. letter to China resolving air crash stalemate [Letter]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Press Releases and Statements

For a press release or statement, each statement should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Author, Initials of Author. (Year, Month Day of Publication. If no date is listed use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of press release or statement [Press release or Statement]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

Sakharov, A. (1980, January 27). Sakharov's statement on his arrest and forced exile [Statement]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Speeches, Lectures, Addresses, or Readings

For a speech, lecture, address, or reading, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Last Name of Speaker, Initials of Speaker. (Year, Month Day of the Speech). Title of speech. Type of Presentation presented at Location of Speech, City, State. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • The type of presentation can be a speech, lecture, address, or reading.

Example:

Nixon, R. (1974, August 8). Nixon's resignation speech. Speech presented at the White House, Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Interviews

For an interview, each citation should include as much of the following information asis available, in this format:

Last Name of Person Interviewed, Initials of Person Interviewed. (Year, Month Day of Interview). [Interview or Transcript of conversation with First Name Last Name of Interviewer, Description of Interviewer]. Title of interview. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • If no date is listed use the abbreviation ("n.d.").

Example:

Bush, G.W. (2004, February 8). [Interview with Tim Russert, moderator of Meet the Press]. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Government Publications

The APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for certain government publications and legal documents, including United Nations resolutions.

Note:

  • The abbreviations "C.F.R." and "Fed. Reg." stand for the Code of Federal Regulations and the Federal Register respectively. Both publications contain federal rules and regulations.

Example:

Proclamation No. 6518, 57 Fed. Reg. 62145 (1992). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

United Nations Resolutions

The APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for United Nations resolutions. The following citation is in Bluebook style. For a United Nations resolution, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Resolution Number, Section of the United Nations that is issuing the resolution, number of session Sess., Supp. No. number of supplement containing the resolution, at page number. U.N. Doc. Number (Year of Resolution). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Example:

S.C. Res. 827, U.N. SCOR, 48th Sess., U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1993). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Legal Documents
Treaties

The APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for certain legal documents, including treaties. The following citation is in Bluebook style. For a treaty, each citation should include as much as is available of the following information, in this format:

The Agreement's Name, Month (abbr.) Day, Year of Signing, Abbreviated Names of Parties to Agreement, Subdivision if citing only part of the agreement, Volume Number Name of Publication Page Number in which the treaty can be found. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • Use the following abbreviated names of countries when citing parties to an agreement:
   

United States of America

U.S.

Mexico

Mex.

Great Britain

Gr. Brit.

Spain

Spain

France

Fr.

Germany, Federal Republic of

F.R.G.

Japan

Japan

Israel

Isr.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

U.S.S.R.

Example:

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, June 18, 1979, U.S.-U.S.S.R. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Acts and Laws

The APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for certain legal documents, including acts and laws. The following citation is in Bluebook style. For an act or law, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Official Name of the Act or Law, U.S.C. title number or Stat. volume number U.S.C. or Stat. Page Number (Year of Enactment). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • The abbreviation "U.S.C." stands for the United States Code, a publication containing the general and permanent laws of the United States. The abbreviation "Stat." stands for Statutes at Large: the official source for laws and resolutions passed by the U.S. Congress. It also contains the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the U.S. Constitution, constitutional amendments, treaties, and presidential proclamations.

Example:

Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, 99 Stat. 1038 (1985). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Court Cases

The APA recommends the use of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for certain legal documents, including material from court cases. The following citation is in Bluebook style. For material from a court case, each citation should include as much of the following information as is available, in this format:

Name of First Plaintiff v. Name of First Defendant, reporter volume no. reporter abbreviation first page of case, specific page or pages referred to (deciding court month (abbr. except May, June, and July) day, year of decision). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Notes:

  1. Case decisions and opinions are published in reporters, publications that contain case opinions from a specific court, region, or jurisdiction.
  2. If the plaintiff or defendant is a person, supply their last name only.
  3. If citing a U.S. Supreme Court case, do not include the deciding court in parenthesis because it is clear from the reporter name. Instead, only include the year of decision in parenthesis.
  4. If a court's decision is reversed, add "rev'd, reporter volume no. reporter abbreviation first page of case name of the court that reversed the decision (year of reversal)" before "Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com"

Example:

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 347 U.S. 483, (May 17, 1954). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Constitution of the United States

For the Constitution of the United States, each citation should include as much of the following information that is available in this format:

U.S. Const. art. or amend. Number, § number, cl. Number. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • § stands for section and cl. stands for clause. Only include these parts of the citation if you are referring to a particular section or clause.

Example:

U.S. Const. amend. XIII. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Encyclopedia

For an encyclopedia article, each citation should include as much of the following information that is available in this format:

Last Name of Author One, Initials of Author One, & Last Name of Author Two, Initials of Author Two [if any]. (Year, Month Day of publication. If no date is listed use the abbreviation "n.d."). Title of encyclopedia article. In Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Note:

  • If the article does not have a named author, give the title of the article followed by the date of publication, if known.

Examples:

Sidey, H. (n.d.). Nixon, Richard Milhous. In Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Off the beaten track: a world-class waterfall. (2006, November). In Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Composite material. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

Citing In Text
Parenthetical References

If your instructor asks you to cite in APA style, you should cite sources in the text of your paper as well as providing a list of references. You should include a parenthetical reference in the text of your paper whenever you quote from a source, paraphrase material, or use another author's idea. A parenthetical reference points the reader to the complete corresponding entry in your references list. When you use a parenthetical reference, include the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses. If there are no page numbers, paragraph numbers should be used.

Page p.
Pages pp.
Chapter chap.
Paragraph para.
What information should I include in a parenthetical reference?

If you state information about your source in a sentence, you do not have to include that information in a parenthetical reference.

What should I do if no author is listed?

If no author is listed, refer to a source by its title (in full or a shortened version). The source should be listed in italics or in quotes in a parenthetical reference if it is listed in italics or in quotes in your list of references. The title should always be capitalized in your parenthetical reference, whether or not it is capitalized in your list of references.

Example:

"In addition to gambling, many reservations, immune from state laws, can generate significant profits via tobacco sales or land leases. It is unreasonable, many critics argue, to continue giving taxpayer subsidies to tribes that generate millions of dollars a year in profits unavailable to other sectors of the population." (Native American Policy, 2014, para. 5).

This parenthetical reference corresponds to a complete entry in your list of references:

Native American policy. (2014, March 31). Retrieved from http://icof.infobaselearning.com

What should I do if a source does not have page numbers?

If a source does not have page or paragraph numbers, provide the heading of the section you are citing from in the parenthetical reference and then include the number of the paragraph following that heading. For example, the following sentence is located in the second paragraph of a section titled "U.S. Settlers Violently Displace Native Americans, Leading to Reservation System."

"Even before the United States won independence from Great Britain in 1783, American colonists had long clashed with the Native Americans who occupied the land that would later become the United States" (Native American Policy, 2014, "U.S. Settlers Violently Displace Native Americans, Leading to Reservation System section, para. 2).
How do I cite two authors with the same name?

If you are citing more than one author with the same last name, include the first and middle initial of each author to avoid confusion.

Footnotes and Endnotes

A footnote or endnote entry is a short note located at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of your paper (endnote).

The APA recommends the use of parenthetical references throughout your paper. Footnotes or endnotes should be used sparingly and used only if:

  • You wish to make an important or interesting comment that does not fit with the flow of your argument.

Example:

The visual contrast between Kennedy and Nixon during the September 1960 televised presidential debate was dramatic.3 However, the candidates...

3In August, Nixon had seriously hurt his knee and had spent two weeks in the hospital. He looked underweight and refused to wear make-up to improve his pallid appearance. Kennedy appeared tanned and well-rested after campaigning in California (Allen, 1997, para. 2).

  • You wish to include copyright permission information for a quote longer than 500 words, a table, or a figure.

Number your footnotes or endnotes consecutively, beginning with 1. Do not number your footnotes or endnotes by page. For example, if you include two footnotes on page one of your paper and a third footnote on page two, the first two footnotes will be numbered "1" and "2" and the third footnote will be numbered "3"—even though it is on a different page.

If you use endnotes, they should begin on a new page at the end of your paper under the heading "Footnotes." The Footnotes page comes before the References list.

For more information on preparing citations according to APA style see www.apastyle.org or borrow the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association:Sixth Edition from your library.

Other Styles

In addition to MLA and APA, your instructor may ask you to use one of the following styles:

If your instructor allows you to choose your own style, remember to follow the rules of that style and use it consistently. It is important to be consistent in order to ensure that you have included all the relevant information and to allow readers to find those sources.

 

Citation Information

How to Cite

Record URL

http://icof.infobaselearning.com/recordurl.aspx?ID=11878

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